Herding Code

Jon and Kevin talk to Gary Ewan Park and Mattias Karlsson about Cake, a cross platform build automation system with a C# DSL to do things like compiling code, copy files/folders, running unit tests, compress files and build NuGet packages.

Download / Listen: Herding Code 219: Cake with Gary Park and Mattias Karlsson

Show Notes:

  • Hello and Intro to Cake
    • (00:35) Gary and Mattias introduce themselves and explain what Cake is. Cake is a cross-platform build system that uses the Roslyn compiler and C# – like Grunt or Gulp, but using C# instead of JavaScript.
    • (01:48) Jon asks about the integrations and CI support. Gary says that’s a key feature: the build you run on your development machine is going to be as close as possible, if not identical to, the build you’re going to run on your CI server. Right now, Cake is set up with at least 10 online CI servers, which has the added benefit of providing them with a ton of badges for their GitHub readme.
    • (03:15) Jon says that he cloned the getting started repo and ran a script and some magic happened… but what exactly was that magic doing? Mattias explains that the bootstrapper (either build.ps1 or build.sh) fetches Cake from NuGet, then it launches the build.cake file.
    • (04:07) Jon asks if PowerShell on Linux will have an impact on Cake, or if the build.sh is simple enough that they’ll just stay with that. Gary says that the bootstrappers are very lightweight and normally don’t need to be changed (although you can if you want), so there’s no real advantage to moving to PowerShell since people who are building on Mac and Linux will probably prefer to just run a shell script.
    • (05:17) Kevin flips it around and asks if it matters for Bash on Windows. Gary says they’ve got this one covered, too, as they’ve already tested out Cake on Bash on Windows. Mattias says the hard part is the platform specific dependencies, and Gary agrees, saying that Cake is just a wrapper around the tools – there’s an expectation that the tools are either installed or available as a NuGet package.
    • (06:55) Jon asks if tools are well segmented per-project. Mattias confirms that everything is project specific – you can share if you want, but the default is that you can just clone a repository and build without thinking about dependencies.
  • Docker
    • (07:50) Jon asks how Cake works with Docker. Mattias talks about the preconfigured Docker images for Cake, which make it easy to easily test builds, handle integration tests, etc. He’s currently testing against Nano Server. Nano Server is very stripped down requires you to install a lot of prerequisites for Cake, so it’s nice to have a preconfigured Docker image for testing. Mattias talks about how versioning with tagged containers help them with integration testing. Gary talk about how they’re using Docker with Bitbucket Pipelines to really speed up their Travis build tests.
  • Cake Script
    • (10:25) Jon asks what a Cake script is – is it just C# code? Gary describes some of the additional build DSL features they’ve added, but other than that it’s just standard C# code.
    • (11:23) Jon muses about how there are build systems available in just about any programming language out there, but as a C# dev, it’s a lot easier to read a build script in C# code. Gary says that he’s a longtime user of PSake (a PowerShell based build system. The problem with that is that often his team members aren’t as familiar with PowerShell, so they don’t want to touch the build script. It’s a mental switch to go from coding in C# all day to switch to PowerShell to work on the build script. For the same reason it’s more comfortable to use a JavaScript based build script like Grunt or Gulp when you’re working on an Angular application and use FAKE when building an F# application, it’s just easier to work with a C# based build script when working on a C# project.
    • (13:30) Jon said that he opened the Cake file in Visual Studio code and saw there was an extension for syntax highlighting, and asks if there’s additional tools for IntelliSense. Gary talks about the current status of OmniSharp when running against Cake. Note that since this podcast was recorded, this has improved as explained in this blog post: How to debug a Cake file using Visual Studio Code.
    • (15:28) Jon asks about debugging a Cake script. Mattias says they’ve added a debug switch to the Cake exe, which waits for you to attach so you can debug. Jon says it sounds great to have debugging support for a build script. Mattias says it’s nice, but since your build scripts are often running on build server it’s also important to have good logging support.
  • Logging
    • (17:02) Jon asks what the logging support is. Mattias says there’s a built-in abstraction for logging as well as an exception handler, so to break the build you can just throw an exception. Gary say that the default is just to log to the build server like AppVeyor, but if you want to log to something like logstash you can. Mattias says that they log to standard output and standard error, and every build system integrates well with that.
  • .NET Core support, DI and Modules, Cross-platform Support
    • (18:06) Jon asks more about the .NET Core port. Mattias says they’re just about done, just working with integration tests. For the most part it’s pretty straightforward, but you can run into things like differences between kernel versions on Linux. The biggest issue has been waiting for dependencies to be available on .NET Core. In the past they’ve relied on Mono for Linux and Mac, and there are slight differences compared to the .NET Framework, so it will be good to be on Core CLR everywhere. (note: the port to .NET Core has since been completed).  
    • (19:52) Jon says he notices they’re using Autofac. Mattias says they use it for dependency injection throughout the codebase, but they’ve replaced it in some places for things like their module system.
    • (20:33) Jon asks how the module system works. Mattias says you just add a module folder in your tools and implement some attributes on your interfaces that indicate what your module should replace. (22:17) Jon asks about any issues they ran into with the .NET Core cross-platform port. Mattias says there are a lot of dependencies you don’t think about – for instance nuget.exe isn’t available cross-platform or on Nano Server, since it only has the Core CLR. Gary says they made a conscious decision not to implement .NET Core early, so they avoided some of the early adopter pain that some other projects ran into.
    • (23:47) Jon asks if they’re doing anything specific to handle platform differences. Mattias says that there are a few IFDEFs, but for the most part issues are around tools support, in which case it just won’t launch at all. Gary talks about platform specific criteria you can use in your build scripts to make platform specific decisions.
  • Cake Tasks, Parallel Tasks, Build System Integration, Unit Tests
    • (26:36) Jon asks how task names are used in a script. Mattias says that those labels are used to determine task dependencies. Gary says you can also use the labels as entry points which are specific to the build server.
    • (28:22) Jon asks if tasks are run in parallel. Mattias says it’s not currently multithreaded because logs would be difficult to follow. When you define a task, it’s just added to the graph, and nothing’s actually executed until you call RunTarget. Gary said there is an open issue to allow parallel execution of tasks, but they’re still working on a good story around debugging and logging. Mattias says it’s standard C# so there’s noting stopping you from running async tasks using the standard C# async methods.
    • (31:46) Jon says he sees support for several build systems and asks about how you integrate with them. Mattias explains how CI systems can call commandline options, and Gary says that all build systems have provisions for environment variables, and Cake provides a typed wrapper around that, so you get a strongly typed object from the build-specific provider to make informed decisions. For instance, when running on AppVeyor their script pushes the NuGet packages to the prerelease MyGet feed from the development branch and the official NuGet feed when running on release.
    • (34:09) Jon asks about assembly info patching and versions. Cake can update based on version info. It’s got file hash support, which is important for pushing to Homebrew.
    • (34:55) Jon asks about unit test integration. Gary says they have method aliases for calling common unit test frameworks, and you can easily extend for other frameworks. Unit test harnesses have published return values, so you can make informed decisions based on specific unit test results.
  • Publishing, Installers, Release Notes
    • (36:46) Jon asks about  publishing options. Cake can build the nuspec for you, you can use your own if you want, or on Core CLR you can use dotnet pack. Jon asks about some of the different ways NuGet is used as a deployment package. (38:42) Jon asks about other installers like WiX, NSIS, etc. Gary says that Cake is really just wrapping tools with strongly typed classes, which makes it easier to pass in property values to tools. There’s no real magic, it’s just bringing it up an abstraction layer, so you don’t have to remember the command semantics of each tool. Jon asks if, in addition to simplifying how you interact with tools, the abstraction makes it a little easier to switch between tools. Gary says that’s true, and describes how this works in practice.
    • (41:44) Jon asks about the release note parsing feature. Gary says there’s an included release notes parser, which can extract version numbers and bulleted release features from a markdown file assuming it’s in a known format. This allows you to stamp your assembly with the version number, and use the bulleted release notes in your NuGet or Chocolatey release notes. There are also Git Release Notes and Git Release Manager which can be used to generate release notes from issues in a milestone based release on GitHub. Gary says they use this with Cake releases, so just tagging a release gives them an end to end publish process which sets version numbers and writes release notes for all their release endpoints (NuGet, Chocolatey, GitHub release, etc.).
  • Addins
    • (44:54) Jon asks about the social network support. Gary and Mattias explain how the different addins can announce builds to Twitter, Slack, Gitter, Hipchat, etc. They describe how things like this that are useful but not essential are available as addins.
    • (46:28) Kevin asks if there are any addins that they see as missing. Gary says there aren’t at the moment. He’s got a generic build script for all of his addins, so adding to the script rolls out to all of his addins.   
    • (48:08) Jon asks about the discussion in their repo: How do we prevent Addin’s becoming stale? Gary talks about the problem (a community member creates a useful addin, then stops maintaining the addin). Their plan is to set up a cake-contrib organization which can help with long-term ownership and support for community addins, allowing them to push NuGet updates as required if the original creator is no longer available or involved. The plan is to ask users to move their addins into the new cake-contrib organization and make the cake contrib user a co-maintainer. Note: Since this was recorded, they’ve set up this organization, as discussed in the wrap-up after the show.
  • Open Source Project Case Studies: NancyFx and IdentityServer
    • (53:14) Jon asks about some of the open source project build conversions to Cake, starting with NancyFx. Mattias explains some of the challenges, as well as the clear payoff: build script pull requests very soon after the conversion. Jon asks some nitpicky details about why the NancyFx build script script is spawning a process instead of using a Cake wrapper. Mattias explains the process by which build scripts are refined, and Gary points out the advantage of always being able to spawn a process if you need to do something Cake doesn’t yet support.
    • (57:43) Jon asks about the IdentityServer migration. Gary said the IdentityServer team had already done the .NET Core port running under PSake and just wanted to migrate to Cake to get cross-platform builds going. It’s also a lot simple of a build process because it’s doing less.
  • Assembly Merging
    • (58:50) Jon asks about ilmerge suport. Mattias says it’s pretty popular for tools, to allow you to distribute the tool as a single exe. Gary says he uses Fody Costura instead to handle assembly merging. Jon says he doesn’t think any assembly merging support is available yet for .NET Core. Gary agrees, and Mattias says that .NET Native support will be helpful when it arrives.
  • Future Plans and Getting In Touch
    • (1:00:08) Jon asks about future milestones and what’s on the horizon after the .NET Core release. Gary hints at some upcoming releases, which are covered in the post-show wrap-up.
    • (1:01:20) Gary talks about some upcoming speaking engagements, and Mattias mentions the Gitter chat, Twitter and GitHub issues as ways for users to ask any questions.
  • Post-Show Update
    • (1:03:10) Cake Contributions organization
      The Cake Contributions organization (cake-contrib on GitHub) is now in full motion. It’s a common place where people can put their Cake addins & modules, if they want. They still maintain and for all purposes “own” the code, but they get access to resources like CI services, common build scripts, better exposure and the Cake core team can assist with merging pull requests, fixing issues and pushing to NuGet if addin grows stale or the author just too busy with life in general. It’s been well received and quite a few projects has moved over.
    • (1:03:52) 0.16 Release with .NET Core support
      So in addition to full .net Framework support, Cake now supports .NET Core (netstandard 1.6). There have been a few patch releases following this, so as of Oct 11 they’re up to 0.16.2. Also, due to adding .NET Core support, it’s now possible to debug a Cake file with Visual Studio Code. That’s cool, because there’s now cross platform debugging support for Cake. There’s a blog post showing how to do that.
    • (1:04:25) Frosting
      Frosting is a stand-alone .NET Core runner and host for cake. Cake uses the Roslyn scripting API and provides a DSL for fetching dependencies like tools and addins. Frosting uses the .NET core SDK to handle dependencies, and your cake build script is really just a .NET Core console app. Both are running against the same Cake.Core and Cake.Common packages, they’re just being hosted differently. This gives you some advantages – you’ve got full Visual Studio IntelliSense and tooling support, use the standard methods to package your build as a NuGet package, etc. Frosting also includes a dotnet CLI tool, so you can call dotnet cake.
    • (1:05:46) Cake for Yeoman support
      This adds a cake generator which makes it easy to bootstrap Cake, including a build script, bootstrapper scripts and config files in the current directory just by typing yo cake. There’s also scaffolding support to create a new .NET Core project using Frosting with yeoman.
    • (1:06:18) Cake for Visual Studio
      This is the first release of the Cake for Visual Studio extension. It includes syntax highlighting, Task Runner Explorer integration, bootstrapper commands in the Build menu, project templates for Cake addins, Cake Addin unit test projects, and Cake Modules

The guys talk to Matt Podwysocki and Eric Rozell about React Native for Windows.

Download / Listen: Herding Code 218: React Native for Windows with Matt Podwysocki and Eric Rozell

Show Notes:

  • Hello and Quick Update on Reactive Extensions
    • (00:15) Matt Podwysocki and Eric Rozell both talk about their work on the Microsoft Partner Catalyst Team.
    • (01:00) Jon asks Matt what’s new with Reactive Extensions for JavaScript (RxJS). Matt talks about how RxJS took on a life of it’s own, as it’s being used by Netflix and Google with Angular 2. Matt’s still a core team member but there are plenty of other people contributing, which is nice. On Reactive Extensions for .NET (RX.NET), they’re working towards the .NET Foundation so it’ll get increased community support. Reactive Extensions are used a lot at Github and Facebook uses it for it’s Nuclide IDE.
  • React and React Native Overview
    • (02:55) Jon asks Matt to overview React. Matt explains how React handles views, components, and unidirectional databinding. Matt says it’s nice that it moves us towards the component model in the HTML world – moving away from the jQuery direct DOM manipulation approach to a more holistic approach.
    • (05:40) Jon says that he thinks that components introduce some problems of their own and asks Matt how React avoids that complexity. Matt says that’s why Flux and Redux were introduced.
    • (06:35) Jon asks what React Native is. Eric explains that React Native allows you to take the same concepts and tool used for building React web applications and use them to build native applications. It started at Facebook and has picked up a lot open source momentum.
  • How React Native compares to Cordova, Xamarin, etc.
    • (07:33) Jon says there’s always heated discussion when you talk about building native applications using web technology. What’s the overhead? Is this similar to Cordova? Eric explains the differences.
    • (08:50) Kevin asks you’d build a native application with React when there are lots of great native development tools out there. Eric talks about some of the advantages of building your application’s UI in JavaScript. Also, shipping updates as JavaScript files using CodePush can be a lot simpler than shipping a new binary for every update. Matt says you can also focus your development team on building the same application for all platforms using React skills rather than separate focus and development skills for each platform.
    • (11:22) Jon asks where React Native fits in on the scale from Cordova to more native tools like Xamarin.
  • Technical Implementation: How React Native creates Windows UWP applications
    • (13:35) Jon asks how UWP fits into React Native and how they implemented it technically. Eric says they took a look at how React Android was built and used that as a guide. He discusses how they handled the runtime, and how the application JavaScript is handled by Chakra.
    • (15:50) Jon asks about the application is hosted. Eric explains that they first create and navigate to a XAML page, then there’s an initial call to start the JavaScript engine with the application name, then sends back over the bridge a bunch of operations against the UI Manager. The UI Manager will then create subviews and construct the UI tree. In the React view, you have a virtual DOM that represents your UI; that gets translated to operations that are sent over the bridge to create a native UI tree.
    • (17:30) Jon asks about how elements are styled, since from his experience that’s all done using CSS styles. Eric says they use a subset of CSS called Flexbox using a library by a developer from Facebook. Matt says when they ported over the F8 app to Windows, they leveraged the same styles and platform specific style pattern that had been used for iOS and Android.
    • (19:23) Jon asks what was most difficult in moving the F8 application to Windows. Eric says the styling part was pretty easy. The hardest part was in handling platform specific support. Matt describes an issue with linear gradient support.
  • Nuts and bolts: Data, Extensibility, X-Plat Dev, Building and Publishing, Scaffolding, Tools, Testing, etc.
    • (21:00) Jon asks how they handle data flow. Eric says they use Relay, which runs on top of GraphQL. It all just moved directly over. Matt says that’s the beauty of this – if there’s something written directly in JavaScript it just works.
    • (21:55) Jon asks about any other platform specific issues. Eric says that it’s conceptually similar to Xamarin in that are you need to keep in mind that you’re writing to a native front end experience. He explains that it’s a happy medium between web front-end (Cordova) and native in that the simple UI components like text are easily shared, but you can target more platform specific controls as needed. He talks about some differences in things like menus, split views and carousels.
    • (23:50) Jon asks about the cross-platform development experience? Do you use a lot of emulators? Eric says he mostly works on Windows using the Visual Studio Android Emulator. He says when he’s adding a new feature to React Native for Windows, he’ll pop open the Android emulator and use the UI explorer. Matt says he also uses Android Studio and Xcode.
    • (25:44) Jon asks if there’s a long build step, or if there’s a quick feedback cycle. Eric says that React is built to make the developer experience really fast, and explains how hot module reloading makes it possible to see application code changes without reloading or even losing current running state. Matt says that you also get the full Chrome debugging experience.
    • (27:15) Jon asks how you package your application for publishing. Matt talks about the publishing steps.
    • (28:10) Jon asks about the rnpm (React Native Package Manager) command-line tool. Eric explains how rnpm helps you include dependencies in your React Native applications. It’s extensible, so Eric and Matt used that to implement the Windows scaffolding experience.
    • (29:52) Jon says that in the scaffolded application he got when he ran rnpm, there are OS specific files for each view and asks if it’s possible to use a consolidated view for all platforms when appropriate. Eric says you’ll generally need a platform-specific entry point for each OS, but once you get past that you can do quite a bit with the core React Native elements.
    • (31:15) Jon asks if it’s possible to create additional platform-specific controls. Matt talks about support for native modules (e.g. dialogs) and  native components (e.g. ImageView).
    • (33:20) Jon asks how he actually runs the application as he’s developing it. Matt says they just read in from the command-line to start the packager and build and run the application using Visual Studio. The docs currently say Visual Studio is required, although that isn’t necessarily the case if you kick off your build using msbuild.
    • (34:30) Jon asks if it could be possible to create a React Native Windows application on Mac or Linux, or if you’ll always need Windows due to the SDK. Matt says you’ll always need the SDKs, but Eric points out that there is a web-based React Native Playground (rnplay.org), and they’d like to reach out to them to get Windows support added.
    • (35:33) Jon asks if anyone is using it beyond the F8 application. Matt says not yet, they’re still working on the dev experience before they start heavily onboarding people. Jon asks who’s using React Native in general and Matt points out the React Native Showcase.
    • (36:50) Since part of the idea of UWP is that it runs on multiple Windows platforms, Jon asks if they’ve done anything with that. Eric talks about how part of their F8 demonstration included showing the application on Xbox, mobile devices with Continuum and desktop. They’re interested in looking into HoloLens and IoT as well.
    • (38:00) Jon asks if it’d be possible to leverage React web code in a React Native application. Eric says that at F8 he saw a talk on the possibility of bringing React Native to web. There are definite sharing points in code between web applications and React Native apps, although you should expect to write native views, and points out that there is work going on to bring React Native to Tizen and macOS.
    • (39:35) Jon asks if React Native for Windows is a science project or an ongoing project. Eric and Matt say they’ll be watching for community interest. They expect to keep up with React Native releases, and are hoping for community contributions. Eric says there are hundreds of React Native community modules, and they can’t scale to supporting all of them without some community involvement. 
    • (41:15) Jon asks about Visual Studio Code support. Matt says that they’re working closely with the VS Code Team. They’ve already got a plugin for React Native that supports deployment to iOS and Android, and Matt’s hoping to get UWP deployment added to that list. Eric points out that you can also set VS Code as your remote debugger, so you can set breakpoints, step through your running code, view stack traces, etc.
    • (42:18) Kevin asks about the testing story – can you write unit tests and integration tests for React Native? Eric says it’s similar to building large cross-stack applications with tests for services and clients – where you write integration tests between your JavaScript libraries and native code, unit tests for native modules, and tools like Jest for your pure JavaScript components.
  • Getting Started

Top Links:

The guys talk to Nick Craver about all the magic behind the scenes at StackExchange global headquarters.

Download / Listen: Herding Code 217: Nick Craver on Stack Overflow Engineering

Show Notes:

  • Hello
  • Architecture / Network
    • (01:58) Jon notes that they’re using Windows and CentOS and asks why CentOS as opposed to other Linux flavors. Nick says they tried Ubuntu first, but it’s more tuned for clients. CentOS is a variant of Red Hat Enterprise Linux, so all the packages work.
    • (02:53) Nick says that they use whatever’s the best tool for each job – factoring in the costs of each new tool (training, migrating, supporting, vendor overhead, etc.). They run Elastic Search, Redis, HAProxy and Logstash.
    • (03:50) Jon asks about how they’re using protobuf to serialize the information they’re persisting Redis. Nick talks about some specifics, including the different levels of caching that they’re doing. They’re using pub / sub with Redis via websockets. They’re not clustering, partly because there’s one Redis cache per SE site. He and Jon discuss how multitenant scenarios often require custom implementations.
    • (07:20) Jon asks about how they’re using websockets. Nick says that they’re used in a lot of places for optional updates. Their problems come from running on very few servers – they end up with huge connection tables per server.
    • (08:23) Jon asks about one of their Redis instances that’s handling machine learning with Providence. Nick says they log some metadata and performance information about about every single request. Providence is a system their data team wrote that analyzes the data, figures out locations, suggested user tags, etc. As a user, you have control over the personalization and can download the data or disable recommendations if you want. There’s also a mobile feed, for mobile apps as well. There are 40k ops/sec all day long against Redis. Scott K asks if he can manipulate his feed.
    • (11:51) Scott K asks about the L1 and L2 cache that Nick’s talked about. Nick clarifies that he’s been referring to HTTP caching on the web server and Redis caching.
  • Tag Engine
    • (12:36) Nick talks about the tag engine and explains how it’s a lot more complex than people think since it handles some complex queries, needs to sort the results, has minimum question score filters, etc. Every two minutes, the tag engine refreshes all the deltas based on row versions in the SQL Server database.  Their previous implementations were saturating the CPU L3 cache. They wrote some affinity code to split things out so Providence and Stack Server run on different processors. Marc Gravell is now working on getting the tag engine working on GPU’s (demo code). Nick said that the difference between a $500 to a $5000 card is only about a 40% improvement. They’re really excited about upcoming graphics cards with 8GB memory, since that will allow them to fit the entire tag engine in memory on the graphics card; with two cards they’ll be able to run active-active and active-passive configurations (for live upgrades) for only about $600 per card. Jon says he saw a question on Hacker News asking if it could just be handled by a bitmap index, but Nick explains how more complicated queries and sorting make that not a good solution. Jon asks about the GPGPU split between C# and C++ code. Nick explains how it’s almost all handled via C# code, but it’s missing a few newer CUDA commands.
    • (19:48) Jon asks about the Elastic Search implementation. Elastic Search doesn’t really support types, it has field groupings, which makes the upgrade more difficult. Nick explains that things are pretty vanilla now, but they’d like to make some customizations to support nested search results when time permits.
  • Data and SQL Server
    • (21:03) Jon asks about their SQL Server implementation. Nick talks about the clustering setup.
    • (21:49) Jon asks what version of SQL Server they’re using. Nick says they’re currently running the latest version of SQL Server 2014 and will move to SQL Server 2016 as soon as it releases. [Note: SQL Server 2016 has since released and they’ve upgraded.]
    • (22:11) Nick talks about some of the top reasons they’re looking forward to SQL Server 2016: string_split and JSON parsing. These are both useful for queries that take a list as a parameter. Jon reminisces about a time long ago when he used XML to pass lists to SQL queries.
    • (23:32) Kevin asks if they’re able to do a piecemeal migration without downtime. Nick explains how they do upgrades using replicas. They can test on other replicas, then fail over to them, or roll back to the previous master. They hate Windows clustering, and Windows Server 2016 and SQL Server 2016 should soon support distributed affinity groups which would allow them to do simple affinity group based upgrades.
    • (26:15) Jon asks about SQL Server on Linux. Nick says he can’t really talk about it.
    • (26:35) Jon asks if they use SQL Server Hekaton / In-Memory OLTP. Nick says they don’t, they run enough memory in their database servers that it’s not needed. Nick says it’s more for high-frequency no-lock access.
    • (27:27) Jon is a little horrified that they don’t use stored procedures and do all database queries using inline SQL. Nick explains that it’s much simpler to modify queries and app code that consumes the query together rather than managing separate deployments. There’s no performance benefit to using stored procedures over inline queries.
    • (29:27) Jon asks about how they handle migrations. Nick explains how changing tables is handled via a migration file and a ten line bot.
  • Source Control, Localization, Build
    • (30:47) Jon asks about their use of GitLab. Nick says it works okay, but they’re testing GitHub Enterprise internally due to performance. GitHub is significantly faster, search works a lot better (due to using Postgres search rather than Elastic Search), and there are some nice new features in GitHub like squashing commits.
    • (32:23) Jon asks about the localization features and is educated about the ja, ru, pt and es versions of stackoverflow. Nick explains some of the different localization issues that you run into in localization. Most localization solution work by string replacement, which requires string allocations. That doesn’t work at scale. They’ve written a system called Moonspeak which uses Roslyn to precompile view. This allows a direct response.write of the localized string via switch statements, which is a lot more efficient. They haven’t had time to open source it yet, but would like to.
    • (36:36) Jon asks about their build process using MSBuild. They use it mostly because it’s what the tooling uses. They could customize it more with PowerShell, but that would tie them more to TeamCity and Nick’s not sure there’s a benefit to making that move. Nick’s waiting to see where csproj is going – he’s got some big doubts it’ll be as terse as project.json, but he’s interested to see. Nick says historically MSBuild has been optimized for three-way merge generation; Jon says that was technically Visual Studio’s fault since MSBuild actually has had glob support for a while.
  • Upcoming Technologies, Visual Studio
    • (40:35) Nick complains about how slow Visual Studio is to reload projects. Their developers have scripts that just kill and restart Visual Studio, because that’s faster than handling project reloads.
    • (41:16) Jon asks if Nick’s played with Visual Studio “15”. Nick wonders about the technology used in the installer. He says it’s generally good, but they’re running into some issues with solution files changing when moving between versions.
    • (42:33) Nick says that they generally don’t ever use File / New, they copy an existing project and rename things. There’s a discussion about whether it’s possible to customize project templates. Jon says you can export a project as a solution template; K Scott mentions that SideWaffle has some capabilities there, too, but there was some “wonkiness”. And what’s the deal with GUIDs in project and solution files?
    • (46:09) Scott K mentions a command line base project generator that he started on years ago called ProjectStarter. He wishes that it was possible to configure Visual Studio to define a custom build tool rather than assuming everything’s in csproj. He gets that Visual Studio features like IntelliSense depend on controlling the build, but doesn’t like that Visual Studio has to “know everything about everything”.
    • (48:55) Jon says he sees two ways that cross-platform can work: either make the frameworks able to work without the tools knowing and controlling everything, or updating Visual Studio Code so it’s able to know and control everything. He hopes it’s the first way.
    • (49:50) Nick complains about how sometimes in-memory builds don’t reflect changes, or csproj doesn’t save before a build. He’d like everything to save before builds. Scott K calls out the Save All The Time extension for Visual Studio that Paul Betts made.
    • (50:40) Jon asks Nick if they’ve looked at ASP.NET Core. Nick says that they’ll mostly be starting with their internal tools. They have several libs that they’ll need to port, and they’ve got some difficult problems with libraries like MiniProfiler that need to support both .NET 4.x and .NET Core because the underlying APIs have some significant differences. You can’t just multi-target code that targets things like HttpContext. Other libraries like dapper and stackexchange-redis haven’t been as bad, and they’ve been working on them because lots of other developers are depending on them.
    • (55:03) Jon calls out some of Nick’s recent C# 6 tweets. Nick says he likes null coalescing and ternaries – they see more terse code as a lot more readable, but it of course varies by team. Roslyn has been really big for them, things like Moonspeak rely on it.
  • Questions from Twitter
    • (56:23) Matt Warren asks “What performance issues have you had the most fun finding and fixing.” Nick mentions the tag engine and a fun debugging issue they ran into where the TimeSpan int constructor uses Ticks rather than seconds or milliseconds, so their cache code was only caching values for tiny fractions of a second rather than thirty seconds. They find out so many issues using MiniProfiler; he wishes more developers would use MiniProfiler (or another tool like Glimpse) in their applications. They run MiniProfiler for every single request on StackOverflow and the overhead is minimal – if they can do it, you can do it.
    • (58:17) Matt Warren asks “What the craziest thing they’ve done to increase performance.” Nick talks about the IL related work they’ve done – sometimes instead of conditional code, it’s faster to just swap out the method body. They’re pragmatic, they only do this for extreme cases like things that run for every request and have real performance implications. What’s the trick for StackOverflow? Keep it simple.

Kevin, K Scott and Jon talk about Bash on Windows, Angular 2, React, new tech devices, and whether Windows Phone is alive, dead, or undead.

Download / Listen: Herding Code 216: Bash on Windows, Angular 2, Surface Book, Kindle Oasis, Windows Phone

Show Notes:

    • Bash on Windows and Windows Insider stuff
      • (00:44) Jon mentions the Bash on Windows announcement at Build and asks if Kevin or K Scott have played with it. This devolves into a discussion of Windows Insider previews. Jon likes it and talks about the steps for enabling Windows Insider preview builds. K Scott has been scared to try it, but it sounds like he’s convinced. Kevin is put off by the Insider term – Windows Insider, Visual Studio Code Insider previews, etc. K Scott adds “Windows Insider” it to his e-mail signature.
      • (05:15) Jon talks about the steps for enabling Bash on Windows. or Windows Subsystem for Linux (Beta), to use the official terminology.
      • (07:08) Feel the excitement of listening to someone type commands into a console window as Kevin asks questions about what’s installed and Jon tries to apt-get it all. K Scott and Kevin wonder about how things like filesystem and processes work, and Jon tries to make up answers.
      • (09:50) Kevin says it feels like an admission of defeat to add *nix support to Windows. Jon says it feels practical to him – developers are building for multiple operating systems (especially including mobile), so it’s nice to have it supported.
      • (11:19) Kevin’s ready for Cygwin to die in a fire, and Jon’s excited about ssh working less horribly on Windows. Kevin says the race is on to get Wine working on Bash on Windows.
    • Angular 2 and React
      • (12:55) Jon worked on a hands on lab for Build that had master-details using Angular 2 and ASP.NET Core. He said Angular 2 seemed a lot simpler than Angular 1 now. K Scott said the component model is simpler, but he’s seeing some resistance to the ECMAScript / TypeScript updates, new binding syntax, etc. The Angular 1.5 release also includes a component model that’s a much easier programming model. It almost feels like some older Microsoft component-based programming frameworks going back to Visual Basic 6: you’re working with components that have simple properties and events. The guys speculate on how soon someone will build the big visual editor for Angular 2.
      • (16:21) Kevin says TypeScript seems like a barrier. K Scott says it’s not strictly required. He rejected TypeScript for a while, but when he was working with Angular 2 and tools and editors supported it he decided he liked it. Jon and K Scott talk about how a lot of things that throw people off about TypeScript are really just modern JavaScript syntax.
      • (18:50) The guys discuss how Angular 2 and React mindshare will play out. Jon likes React as long as he never views source. Jon thinks the unidirectional flow is really simple, and Kevin agrees – after years of lower level Backbone, the simpler flow in React saves some mental energy.
      • (20:29) Jon mentions that React Native recently came to Windows, too.
    • Devices: Surface Book, Kindle and big batteries
      • (20:56) K Scott got a new Surface Book (after waiting to make sure nothing new was coming out at Build). He says it’s the best piece of PC hardware he’s bought in years – the build quality is good, the keyboard is good, he gives the trackpad of 9 out of 10. He says that the detachable tablet is a bit large as a tablet, so he’s using an older Surface for reading.
      • (23:58) Jon jokes that K Scott’s not likely to buy a Kindle and says he gradually stopped using his Kindle when he moved to Audiobooks, and kind of associates reading with work now. Kevin says that’s sad. They talk about Kindles for kids’ books.
      • (27:07) Kevin says the two big things he picked up for the new Kindle are physical page buttons and a three month battery. He says the main thing he likes about Kindle for both him and his kids (as opposed to a tablet) is that it forces you to read instead of getting distracted. The guys decide that tripling the life of an already one month battery isn’t a huge win.
      • (29:20) Jon says he recently bought a portable battery that can recharge his laptop, which is handy for long flights. (note: he said it was iPad size, it’s a lot smaller but is 1.2 pounds)
      • (31:15) Jon asks Kevin about new Apple hardware. Kevin says the iPad Pro screen is apparently astounding – he’s expecting them to be amazing in a few generations. Same for Apple Watch – he doesn’t have one yet, he’s waiting for version two. Jon says the improvement from Microsoft Band 1 to Band 2 was pretty nice, especially in the industrial design.
    • Lightning Round: Will Windows Phone be dead in one year?
      • (33:40) K Scott asks if Windows Phone will be dead in a year. Jon hopes not, as he just bought a Lumia 950 XL. He’d had a budget Blu Windows Phone since September, and the Windows 10 Insider builds were nice, but the camera wasn’t very good. He really likes Windows 10 as a phone operating system and thinks it’s sad that so few people will actually see it.
      • (35:55) K Scott got a Lumia 950 XL in January (when he dropped something on his previous phone). He got the docking station, too, and said it worked surprisingly well. The guys discuss how useful docking a phone is; Jon postulates that it could be useful for someone who does everything on their phone and occasionally needs to write a long email or edit their resume – especially if it can be hooked up to a TV.
      • (38:30) Kevin says that Windows Phone isn’t dead. it’s undead. It will linger on in a zombie-like state indefinitely.
    • Scott Koon sends us out with a request for further information by e-mail.

Links:

At NDC Oslo, Jon talked to Jon McCoy about .NET security and defensive patterns for building enterprise applications.

Download / Listen: Herding Code 215: Jon McCoy on .NET Security and Defensive Patterns

Show Notes:

    • Security Patterns
      • (0:15) Jon Galloway (henceforth in this post JG) mentions the last time Jon McCoy was on the show and asks him about his talks this time around. This time, he and Topher Timzen did a hands on attack class followed by talks on defensive patterns for enterprise applications (video: Hacking .NET(C#) Application: Building and Breaking Layered Defense).
      • (00:54) JG asks Jon if he showed off any scary hacks. Jon describes an attack in which they made an executable editable both on disk and in memory, then edited both the IL and assembly code to do things like inject direct database attacks (bypassing . He describes how that could be defended using enterprise defensible architecture by talking to databases through services which can implement security layers. The goal is to prevent an attack at one layer from moving through the rest of the enterprise.
      • (1:59) JG says that often hears that major hacks occur by web application attacks that are then escalated to database attacks, often through password reuse. Jon says that’s true, since web applications are often deployed to the same server as a database or authentication server. He recommends using a service that’s locked to a single port, with security unit tests.
      • (2:43) JG asks which patterns he’s describing are unique to .NET development. Jon says that he’s emphasizing patterns that are easy on .NET – for example,  REST services are easy to implement on .NET as compared to C++. He’s advocating architectural changes that are relatively easy to implement in .NET applications provided you start with them early on (rather than trying to retrofit security later).
    • A specific example: Protecting a medical record
      • (3:33) JG asks for some specific examples. Jon says they talked about security unit tests and user stories and gives and example from his talk about a medical record that’s being sent through an enterprise securely. To do that, you’d need to encrypt it on an edge node, so the web server and database don’t have decrypted data or decryption keys. Instead, you use a key server on a segmented network. Because of this, at no point could a sysadmin have gotten access to the record because it was encrypted at all steps.
    • "Above Admin"
      • (4:49) JG points out that Jon is talking about preventing access to sensitive data by sysadmins. Jon says that you should consider your attackers to have more power than a sysadmin – they refer to attacker privileges as "above admin" because they’ve taken over your AD infrastructure, passwords on routers, dropping new firmware, etc.
      • (5:50) JG refers to James Mickens’ keynote from the previous night (Herding Code interview here) and asks if there’s any hope. Jon says you need to plan, you need to minimize pivot points to prevent an attacker from moving between servers. He discusses potentially using static HTML that calls into secured REST services rather than web applications with direct database access, because building security around a REST service is much easier than securing a web application and web server.
    • Mobile and desktop application security
      • (9:03) JG asks about mobile application security, since he frequently hears about mobile apps that are supported by unsecured (or very poorly secured) backend services. Jon refers to Amazon and Twitter as examples of companies with published patterns for secured backend services.
      • (9:52) JG asks if for some tips on how different systems on the network should be secured, referring to desktop applications. Jon says that each system should defend itself from the other systems, so in this case the other systems should assume that the desktops could be compromised, the desktop applications should assumed the database can be compromised, there needs to be thought about defending the outgoing APIs, etc. There needs to be a plan for how to take things down and respond.
    • What do you wish you’d done?
      • (10:35) As a thought exercise, assume that your database or web server has been compromised: what do you wish you’d have done? Do that for different pieces of your application architecture. Jon says that you can make it a fun exercise, pit dev teams against each other, etc. Security should be fun and easy if you’re doing it right.
    • Wave 3D: A 3D operating system front end
      • (12:07) JG asks Jon about the 3D operating system he’d mentioned before the call. Jon describes Wave 3D, a cross platform front-end to multiple operating systems (Windows, Mac, Linux, Android) that gives the same exact experience for all backend systems. It can be connected to Amazon, Google and Dropbox document storage.
      • (12:56) Jon says it’s running on Mono and Unity and says it compares pretty well with 3D operating systems in the movies, and they’re looking at launching it via Kickstarter. It provides a simple, install-free environment with a document viewer, movie player and more on every platform instantly.

Note: This is our last podcast from NDC 2015.

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